Coffea Arabica -Origin
Coffea Arabica has its origin in Ethiopia, in the Kaffa region, where it was discovered in the wild around the 15th century. From there this species spread via Yemen to the rest of the Arab world.
It was not until the second half of the 17th century, when the desire to drink coffee had also gripped Western Europe, that the coffee plant began to migrate, which ended Arabia's monopoly on the cultivation of the coffee tree.The cultivation of the coffee plant spread to India (Malabar), Java to the American continent.To date, Coffea Arabica or simply "Arabica" is the most common variety with 60-70% of world production.
COFFEE - healing properties and use of coffee
Coffee has a beneficial effect on health as it has numerous healing properties. Therefore, coffee beans are a raw material highly valued by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, including because they contain substances that delay the body's aging processes. Check what properties coffee has and what it is used for.
Coffee is obtained from the seeds of the red fruit of evergreen coffee shrubs (Coffea) grown in the tropics, mainly in Africa and South America, where their medicinal properties and application are known. The seeds are dried and roasted, as a result of which they turn brown. Coffee is also a drink brewed from roasted and ground coffee beans.
Most of the coffee you consume comes from Robusta or Arabica varieties. As much as 70 percent. world-produced Arabica variety, aromatic and mild in taste. Robusta comes from Southeast Asia and Brazil, has a slightly bitter taste and contains about 50 percent. more caffeine than arabica.
It is worth knowing that every day in the world people drink over three billion cups of coffee. The highest consumption per capita is recorded in Scandinavia (even over 10 kg per year). In Poland, consumption is estimated at 1-1.5 cups per day, which corresponds to an annual consumption of approx. 2-3 kg .
Coffee - a source of caffeine
Caffeine is the most famous and valued component of coffee, which determines its healing properties. Caffeine has been used in anti-migraine, anti-asthmatic, analgesic and stimulant preparations. The treatment dose is 200 mg, which is equivalent to approximately 4 cups of espresso, 3 cups of instant coffee, 2 cups of ground coffee and approximately 20 cups of decaffeinated coffee .
Caffeine content in different types of coffee
Type of coffee
- a cup of black coffee: 70-140 mg
- a cup of instant coffee: 95 mg
- a cup of espresso: 57 mg
- a cup of iced coffee: 50-70 mg
For comparison, an incomplete cup of black loose tea contains 65 mg of caffeine, and a bottle (0.33 l) of Coca-Cola - 45 mg.
Coffee - anti-cancer properties
Coffee is also a source of valuable antioxidants - chlorogenic and coffee acids, which not only neutralize oxygen free radicals in the body and facilitate cleansing the body of harmful toxins, but also improve the body's defenses. Scientists believe that thanks to these properties, antioxidants can protect the genetic material in cells from damage and thus protect against certain types of cancer. It has recently been found that the level of these valuable antioxidants in coffee increases significantly during the roasting process of coffee beans.
The most expensive coffee in the world is extracted from the faeces of the Łaskuns. Copy Luwak coffee costs around 1,000 euros per kilogram! In Ireland, a cup of this drink costs 30 euros
Researchers at the University of Southampton have shown that drinking coffee reduces the risk of liver cancer. Increasing coffee consumption by one cup per day was associated with a 20% reduction in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Drinking two cups more - 35 percent. and so on, up to five cups (few people drank more than five).
Coffee improves memory and concentration
The caffeine, theophylline and theobromine found in coffee beans act on the central nervous system, accelerating the flow of electrical impulses in the brain, i.e. thought processes. Therefore, it stimulates the mind, increases short-term memory and facilitates concentration. The body begins to absorb caffeine from the gastrointestinal tract after about a quarter of an hour after drinking a cup of coffee, and it reaches its highest concentration in the blood and has the strongest effect on the nervous system after about three hours.
Coffee and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease
In the long term, coffee, specifically caffeine, theophylline and theobromine, reduces the risk of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. this was proved by scientists from the University of Illinois at Chicago (USA). Their research found that the onset of Parkinson's disease in coffee drinkers was later (72 years) than in those who did not consume coffee (64 years).
Other studies have confirmed the benefits of caffeine consumption in lowering the risk of Parkinson's disease. The risk reduction compared to nondrinkers was approximately 30%. Such a protective effect was achieved with the consumption of 3 cups a day, and a further increase in the dose of caffeine did not correlate with its intensity. This phenomenon was more noticeable in men than in women.
Coffee reduces the risk of diabetes mellitus 2
Coffee can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. According to a study by Dutch scientists at the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, which was published in the Lancet. Among those who drink more than 7 cups a day, compared to 2 cups a day, the risk is reduced by up to 50%
Coffee supports weight loss
Caffeine accelerates metabolic changes in the body, especially fat burning. That is why coffee has become one of the desirable ingredients in weight loss preparations.
Coffee helps with allergies and asthma
The results of research conducted so far by numerous laboratories around the world suggest that caffeine may be useful in the treatment of allergies because it lowers the concentration of histamine - a substance involved in allergic reactions. In contrast, it is proven that in people with asthma, caffeine reduces the frequency and severity of attacks of breathlessness, because it dilates the bronchi.
Is coffee with milk harmful?
Some scientists argue that frequent drinking of coffee with milk is harmful to health. In their opinion, the acids in coffee react to the protein in the milk, making digestion difficult. After drinking a cup of coffee with milk, the consumed food remains in the stomach. Other researchers have shown that you can drink coffee with milk without harming the body.
Coffee and drugs. Drinking coffee with drugs may be harmful
Medicines should not be taken with coffee, as they weaken or intensify the effects of some of them. For example, coffee, due to the presence of tannins, limits the absorption of many substances (e.g. neuroleptics). By lowering the pH of gastric juice (by stimulating the secretion of hydrochloric acid), it reduces the effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors. People who are struggling with anemia and are taking iron supplements should also not drink coffee as it prevents the iron from being absorbed. Other medications that must not be mixed with coffee include:
- aminophylline and theophylline
- antibiotics (e.g. ciprofloxacin)
- preparations of magnesium and calcium
- any pain medications
- antifungal drugs
Coffee - side effects, side effects, contraindications
Caffeine increases the symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. In addition, it stimulates the secretion of hydrochloric acid, which promotes the development of stomach ulcers. Therefore, patients with gastroenterological conditions such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease should be advised to limit coffee consumption.
The daily dose of caffeine for a healthy adult should not exceed 600 mg. In extreme cases, excessive consumption can cause paralysis of the nervous system, seizures and even death. It is assumed that the lethal dose is determined according to the rate of 150 mg of caffeine per 1 kg of body weight (about 80 cups a day for a healthy person, not overweight). A safe dose is 600 mg per day, which is approximately 6 cups.
Coffee flushes magnesium out of the body?
It is widely believed that coffee flushes magnesium out of the body. Yes, after consuming coffee there is a slightly increased excretion of magnesium in the urine, which lasts for several hours. The caffeine contained in coffee leads to the loss of magnesium in the amount of several mg per day. However, coffee is a source of not only caffeine, but also ... magnesium. 100 g of beans provides 3 mg of this element. In the light of the American food composition tables, a serving of coffee, depending on the brewing method, provides 7-24 mg of magnesium, while according to national data, 100 ml of coffee infusion provides 12 mg of this element.5 Therefore, coffee is a source of magnesium for the body (admittedly not very good, the average cup of coffee covers about 5% of the recommended daily magnesium intake, so an increase in the supply of this nutrient through coffee does not seem significant) 5, but the most important thing is that a cup of coffee provides more magnesium than it flushes out of the body. Consequently, the balance is positive.
Coffee - care properties
In many anti-aging cosmetics, caffeine is one of the most important ingredients. Not only because it improves microcirculation in the skin, but also because of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties that help fight various skin imperfections. More importantly, however, the polyphenolic compounds contained in coffee (mainly chlorogenic acid) delay the process of vitamin C decomposition and thus smooth out skin irregularities and prevent new ones from forming.
Caffeine in body cosmetics inhibits the lipogenesis process, i.e. the formation of new fat cells, and at the same time stimulates the lipolysis process - the breakdown of triglycerides in the tissue. By accelerating fat burning, it significantly reduces the visibility of cellulite - with the systematic use of caffeinated cosmetics, the skin becomes smoother, firmer and tighter.
Caffeine is an ingredient often used in eye creams. It has a beneficial effect on the microcirculation in the capillaries of the skin - it expands them and thus improves blood flow, which in turn reduces the bothersome dark circles under the eyes.
Besides, coffee strengthens the hair. Caffeine in shampoos and hair conditioners stimulates their growth and reduces the sensitivity of the hair follicles to the adverse effects of hormones - mainly male baldness caused by the action of dihydrotestosterone. In addition, caffeine reduces the negative impact of stress on the hair follicles, significantly reducing hair loss.
Coffee - selection and storage
The best and tastiest drink is made from freshly roasted and ground beans. They should be aromatic and free of cracks.
The darker the coffee is roasted, the stronger and bitter the taste will be.
Store coffee in a tightly closed box, in a dry and cool place. Ground coffee that is not used in a week can be stored in the refrigerator, but should not be frozen. It's good to know that coffee absorbs odors.
Coffee - serving
Coffee is best ground just before serving. The finely ground will brew the fastest.
A strong coffee can be obtained by pouring two tablespoons of coffee into every 150 ml of water.
The cold water brings out the flavor of the ground coffee.
The coffee grinder should be cleaned several times a month with a 1: 1 mixture of vinegar and water. This removes the accumulated fat which oxidizes and gives the coffee a bitter taste.
Strong black coffee can be added to cakes and other desserts.
You can use ground coffee to make a marinade for meats.
The typical shape of the Arabica bean is oval, rather flat and with an S-shaped cut in the middle.
Coffea thrives between 23 degrees north and 25 degrees south of the equator in tropical and subtropical climates.
Arabica is mainly grown in the highlands between 1000 and 2200 m. The largest producers are (sorted in descending order by cultivation quantity):
- Honduras / Peru
- El Salvador
- Costa Rica
The ideal rainfall for Arabica is between 1500-2500mm per year. Thanks to the deep root system, the Arabica plants also thrive in dry upper soil layers. At 9 months, the Arabica cherries ripen faster than those of Robusta, which means that the pruning and fertilization phase is longer.
A healthy Arabica tree produces between 1 to 5kg of coffee cherries per season.
High-quality Arabica coffee has a slightly sweet taste with floral notes and fruity, berry aromas. Depending on personal taste, the fruity acidity and absence of bitterness are perceived as pleasant. The intensity of these taste and aroma properties is largely determined by the degree of roasting. The lighter the roast, the stronger the emphasis on the fruity properties. The origin of the beans also determines the aroma. Depending on the region, the beans have different taste profiles.